Successful collaboration begins with a shared language, hence the need for a glossary. This joint effort of contributors from several teams ensures, on the one hand, terminological and conceptual coherence across not only our theoretical approaches, but also the qualitative case studies and quantitative research conducted in OPPORTUNITIES. On the other hand, our glossary facilitates communication between the academic side of the project and the fieldwork conducted by NGOs, uniting our teams working from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ghana, Italy, Mauritania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania and Senegal.

For more information about the Structure and Objectives of the Glossary, click here...)

There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism. In the United States, the FBI distinguishes between international terrorism – i.e., “[v]iolent, criminal acts committed by individuals and/or groups who are inspired by, or associated with, designated foreign terrorist organizations or nations (state-sponsored)” – and domestic terrorism – i.e., “[v]iolent, criminal acts committed by individuals and/or groups to further ideological goals stemming from domestic influences, such as those of a political, religious, social, racial, or environmental nature.” The European Council’s anti-terrorism strategy puts emphasis on the prevention of radicalization, which “is not a new phenomenon,” but “has become a more serious threat in recent years”; a key part of the strategy is stricter control of online communication: “In April 2021, the EU adopted a regulation on addressing the dissemination of terrorist content online. The new rules will apply as of 7 June 2022. Competent authorities in the member states will have the power to issue removal orders to service providers requiring them to remove terrorist content or disable access to it within one hour.” (original emphasis)

⇢ see also Anti-racism

References and further reading:

Council of the European Union. 2023. “The EU’s Response to Terrorism.” European Council. URL:

FBI. 2023. “Terrorism.” FBI. URL:​investigate/terrorism.

Category: C

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8