Successful collaboration begins with a shared language, hence the need for a glossary. This joint effort of contributors from several teams ensures, on the one hand, terminological and conceptual coherence across not only our theoretical approaches, but also the qualitative case studies and quantitative research conducted in OPPORTUNITIES. On the other hand, our glossary facilitates communication between the academic side of the project and the fieldwork conducted by NGOs, uniting our teams working from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ghana, Italy, Mauritania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania and Senegal.

For more information about the Structure and Objectives of the Glossary, click here...)

The term gender refers to “the socially constructed attributes, roles, activities, responsibilities and needs predominantly connected to being male or female in given societies or communities at a given time” (European Migration Network [EMN] Glossary; entry on “gender”). The International Organization for Migration highlights that a person’s gender and gender identity, as well as their sex and sexual orientation, can have a significant bearing on migration experiences or mobility experiences. Female refugees or marginalized groups (e.g., members of the LGBTQ community), for instance, may be more vulnerable or face more problems and risks than male migrants. Power relations prevailing in a specific society or culture may influence the significance of migration and mobility in different ways for men, women, and transgender persons (see Güell and Parella 2021, Jolly and Reeves 2005). Acknowledging that gender awareness should play a vital role in fair and inclusive discourses of migration, OPPORTUNITIES seeks to promote stories of migration that work towards gender equality.

⇢ see also: EqualityDiversityMigrationMobility, Politics of mobility, Refugee archetype, Risk, Victimization, Vulnerability

References and further reading:

European Commission. 2020. European Migration Network (EMN) Glossary. URL: Date of access: August 24, 2021.

Güell, Berta, and Parella, Sònia. 2021. Guidelines on How to Include the Gender Perspective in the Analysis of Migration Narratives. [Publication by the Horizon 2020 project BRIDGES: Assessing the Production and Impact of Migrant Narratives.] Barcelona: Barcelona Centre for International Affairs. URL:

Jolly, Susie, and Reeves, Hazel. 2005. Gender and Migration: Overview Report. Brighton, UK: BRIDGE: Development – Gender / Institute of Development Studies. URL:

The International Organization for Migration. 2021. Gender and Migration. IOM: UN Migration. URL:

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8