Successful collaboration begins with a shared language, hence the need for a glossary. This joint effort of contributors from several teams ensures, on the one hand, terminological and conceptual coherence across not only our theoretical approaches, but also the qualitative case studies and quantitative research conducted in OPPORTUNITIES. On the other hand, our glossary facilitates communication between the academic side of the project and the fieldwork conducted by NGOs, uniting our teams working from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Ghana, Italy, Mauritania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania and Senegal.

For more information about the Structure and Objectives of the Glossary, click here...)

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Highly skilled migrant

Highly skilled migrants are skilled workers who are permanent or long-term emigrants with a profession acquired through high-level education and/or experience. While skilled migrant workers often receive preferential treatment with regard to entry and residence in the host state (e.g., reduced requirements for change of occupation, family reunification, and length of stay), their act of migration is often detrimental to the economic and social development of the country of origin. By extension, the term also refers to student mobility or movement of the highly educated.

⇢ see also: Brain drain, Labor migration, MigrantMobility

References and further reading:

Tandian, Aly, and Serigne Mansour Tall. 2010. “La migration des personnes hautement qualifiées depuis et vers le Sénégal: historicité, actualité et perspectives [Technical Report, Migration Policy Centre].” In CARIM Analytic and Synthetic Notes 2010/22. URL:

Category: A

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7



Human trafficking

The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, published by the United Nations in 2000, defines human trafficking or “trafficking in persons” as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.” (Article 3, § (a)). For more details see also the entry on human trafficking in the Migration Data Portal.

⇢ see also: Trafficker

References and further reading:

United Nations. 2000. “Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime.” United Nations. URL:

The International Organization for Migration. 2021. “Human Trafficking.” Migration Data Portal. URL:

Category: D

Work Package: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8